canada goose outlet canada goose outlet cheap canada goose outlet The roots of prolonged exposure for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder go back more than 50 years to the Maudsley Hospital in London, which at the time was overflowing with patients suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia, a severe anxiety disorder in which sufferers typically refuse to travel far from what they consider to be “safe zones” (such as home). After trying many therapy methods ranging from psychoanalysis to various other talk therapies and desensitization, all without luck, the Maudsley therapists and researchers eventually experimented with giving these patients practice facing their (the patients’) fears (exposure). This led to the ground breaking exposure methods that proved to be effective for panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, and now PTSD.

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canada goose outlet sale There have been numerous studies conducted on the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child language development. A child that has been prenatally exposed to cocaine may be affected neurologically and thus have biological reasons for impaired language development. However, maternal cocaine use can also adversely affect social functions in the mother, such as stimulation of and attentiveness and sensitivity towards the child. Besides impairing social functioning, cocaine use is correlated with psychological characteristics including depression and anxiety, which could consequently affect parenting style. Previous research has examined various direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure in a biological sense, and indirect effects relating to the quality of mother child interactions, maternal psychosocial characteristics and other environmental factors. The current study focuses on the possible effects of cocaine use on maternal interactive style which may be associated with delays in child language development. The child directed language of 66 mothers (44 cocaine users and 22 non cocaine users) is analysed and categorised into maternal speech styles using data from dyadic play sessions made available through the CHILDES database. Results of the analysis reveal few statistically significant differences between the cocaine using and non cocaine using mothers in this study. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed canada goose outlet sale.